How to reset NVRAM or PRAM on Mac

Fixing Mac Issues by Resetting NVRAM or PRAM: A Step-by-Step Guide.

By Abhishek Chandel
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How to reset NVRAM or PRAM on Mac

How to reset NVRAM or PRAM on Mac

Is your Mac giving you trouble? Maybe it’s not starting up the way it should, the display is acting up, or the audio isn’t working right. If that’s the case, resetting the NVRAM or PRAM might help. In this post, I’ll explain what these terms mean, why resetting them might help, and give you easy-to-follow instructions on how to do it.

What are NVRAM and PRAM?

Your Mac has some memory that stores the settings it needs before turning on. Things like which disk to start from, speaker volume, screen brightness, time zone and details of the last crash (if there was one).

Sometimes the settings in this memory get messed up, causing problems. Your Mac may take a long time choosing which disk to use, start with the wrong screen size, or have audio issues. Resetting this memory can help fix problems by returning the settings to their defaults.

Resetting what's called NVRAM or PRAM wipes out the stored settings and has your Mac start fresh. This often fixes odd issues with booting, display settings, or audio.

How to Reset NVRAM or PRAM on a Mac

So, how do you reset the NVRAM or PRAM on a Mac? It’s pretty easy! Just follow these steps:

Option keyplusCommand keyplusP keyplusR key

  1. Shut down your Mac.

  2. Press the power button to turn on your Mac.

  3. Immediately press and hold the Command-Option-P-R keys.

  4. Keep holding the keys for about 20 seconds. You may hear the startup sound twice or see the Apple logo appear and disappear twice.

  5. Release the keys.

After resetting the NVRAM or PRAM, you may need to reconfigure some of your settings, like the time zone or startup disk.


If you’re having trouble resetting the NVRAM or PRAM on your Mac, try these tips:

  • Make sure you’re pressing the right keys: Command-Option-P-R.

  • Make sure you’re pressing the keys right after turning on your Mac.

  • If you have a firmware password set on your Mac, you’ll need to turn it off before resetting the NVRAM or PRAM.


Resetting the NVRAM or PRAM on your Mac can help fix issues with startup, display, and audio. These little memory banks store important settings that your computer needs before it loads the operating system. If those instructions get messed up somehow, your Mac can start having problems. Resetting that memory wipes out the wrong instructions and gives your Mac fresh default ones. It's like giving your Mac a clean slate to start from. Follow the steps above to reset the NVRAM/PRAM. That should get your Mac back up and running correctly. And if you have trouble resetting it, try the troubleshooting tips. Sometimes a Mac just needs a little reboot or hard restart to reset the memory properly.

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